Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy. Although there were imperial exams as early as the Han dynasty , the system became widely utilized as the major path to office only in the mid- Tang dynasty , and remained so until its abolition in Since the exams were based on knowledge of the classics and literary style, not technical expertise, successful candidates were generalists who shared a common language and culture, one shared even by those who failed. This common culture helped to unify the empire and the ideal of achievement by merit gave legitimacy to imperial rule. However, the Confucian examination syllabus has also been compared to the humanist education central to contemporary European government service. The examination helped to shape China's intellectual, cultural and political life.
The United States and East Asia: The decline of long-distance leadership?
Comparing the rise and fall of empires (article) | Khan Academy
Prepared with the assistance of Richard Javad Heyderian. Friends, we are here to demonstrate our solidarity with the people of Palestine, who have tenaciously for their land and rights against Zionist aggression. As a Southeast Asian, I deeply feel the pain and suffering that has gripped the ancient holy land. Our region has been at the crossroads of different cultures and religions. Islam, and its rich cultural heritage, has been part-and-parcel of many Southeast Asian societies for centuries. The region is home to the biggest Islamic country, Indonesia, with hundreds of millions Muslims being citizens of the other countries in the region.
The historiography of the British Empire refers to the studies, sources, critical methods and interpretations used by scholars to develop a history of Britain's empire. Historians and their ideas are the focus here; specific lands and historical dates and episodes are covered in the article on the British Empire. Scholars have long studied the Empire, looking at the causes for its formation, its relations to the French and other empires, and the kinds of people who became imperialists or anti-imperialists, together with their mindsets. The history of the breakdown of the Empire has attracted scholars of the histories of the United States which broke away in , India independent in , and the African colonies independent in the s. John Darwin identifies four imperial goals: colonizing, civilizing, converting, and commerce.
Western imperialism in Asia as presented in this article pertains to Western European entry into what was first called the East Indies. This was sparked early in the 15th century by the search for trade routes to China that led directly to the Age of Discovery , and the introduction of early modern warfare into what was then called the Far East. By the early 16th century the Age of Sail greatly expanded Western European influence and development of the Spice Trade under colonialism. There has been a presence of Western European colonial empires and imperialism in Asia throughout six centuries of colonialism , formally ending with the independence of the Portuguese Empire 's last colony East Timor in